This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychology Association style and common citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA and APA Style Blog for detailed standards and procedures.
When you reference another source use an in-text citation in the body of your paper.
(Author's Last Name(s) or Organization, Year).
If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.
If you're directly quoting more than 40 words, use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.
Shavers (2007) study found the following:
While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)
Toro Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.
Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.
According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status.
In-text citations differ depending on the number of authors listed for a work, and if there is a group author.
I'm citing a work with...
You only need the author's last name and the year.
Connect both authors' last names with & (ampersand) and include the year.
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
If there are 3-5 authors...
In the first in-text citation:
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In subsequent in-text citations:
(Kernis et al., 1993)
If there are 6+ authors...
You only need the first author's name, followed by et al., and the year.
(Harris et al., 2018)
First time with an abbreviation:
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019)
Then all subsequent citations: (CDC, 2019)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Source, Volume (Issue), page range. Retrieved from [URL web address].
I'm citing a...
Ashing‐Giwa, K. T., Padilla, G., Tejero, J., Kraemer, J., Wright, K., Coscarelli, A., Clayton, S., Williams, I., & Hills, D. (2004). Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: A qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology, 13(6), 408-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.750
Kennedy, M. (2018, October 15). To prevent wildfires, PG&E pre-emptively cuts power to thousands in California. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/10/15/657468903/to-prevent-wildfires-pg-e-preemptively-cuts-power-to-thousands-in-california.
Lee, H. (1960). To kill a mockingbird (1st ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co.eBook
Crouch, A. T., & Meurier, C. (Eds.). (2005). Vital notes for nurses: Health assessment. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.
Preheim, G. (2008). Clinical scholar model: Competency development within a caring curriculum. In M. H. Oermann (Ed.), Annual review of nursing education. New York, NY: Springer. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Academic eBook Collection.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Protect yourself with vaccination [Web page]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/adultvaccinations/.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Health Statistics Reports. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007 (Report No. 12). Retrieved from https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/5266.
Citing a letter, photograph, text document, graphic material, or ephemera? Consult the Gerth Archives APA Citation Guide for Archival Materials.
1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor.
2. Right click.
3. Select Paragraph.
4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.
Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text!
1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply.
2. Select Format Painter.
3. Highlight the text you want to change.
Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics.
1. Double click the header on the second page.
2. Select Page Numbers and top right.
3. Right click the page number.
4. Select Format Page Numbers.
5. Change Start at from 1 to 0.
Note: Make sure the header is set to Different First Page for the running head.